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What is a valid HSRP virtual MAC address?

  • A. 0000.5E00.01A3
  • B. 0007.B400.AE01
  • C. 0000.0C07.AC15
  • D. 0007.5E00.B301

Answer: C

Hot Standby Router Protocol Features and Functionality shtml
HSRP Addressing
In most cases when you configure routers to be part of an HSRP group, they listen for the HSRP MAC address for that group as well as their own burned-in MAC address. The exception is routers whose Ethernet controllers only recognize a single MAC address (for example, the Lance controller on the Cisco 2500 and Cisco 4500 routers). These routers use the HSRP MAC address when they are the Active router, and their burned-in address when they are not.
HSRP uses the following MAC address on all media except Token Ring:** (where ** is the HSRP group number)


What are two characteristics of Frame Relay point-to-point subinterfaces? (Choose two.)

  • A. They create split-horizon issues.
  • B. They require a unique subnet within a routing domain.
  • C. They emulate leased lines.
  • D. They are ideal for full-mesh topologies.
  • E. They require the use of NBMA options when using OSPF.

Answer: BC

Configuring Frame Relay Subinterfaces
On partially meshed Frame Relay networks, the problem of split horizon can be overcome by using Frame Relay subinterfaces. Frame Relay provides a mechanism to allow a physical interface to be partitioned into multiple virtual interfaces. In a similar way, using subinterfaces allows a partially meshed network to be divided into a number of smaller, fully meshed point-to-point networks. Generally, each point-to-point subnetwork is assigned a unique network address. This allows packets received on one physical interface to be sent out from the same physical interface, albeit forwarded on VCs in different subinterfaces.
There are two types of subinterfaces supported by Cisco routers: point-to-point and multipoint subinterfaces.

Lab - Access List Simulation
A network associate is adding security to the configuration of the Corp1 router. The user on host C should be able to use a web browser to access financial information from the Finance Web Server. No other hosts from the LAN nor the Core should be able to use a web browser to access this server. Since there are multiple resources for the corporation at this location including other resources on the Finance Web Server, all other traffic should be allowed.
The task is to create and apply a numbered access-list with no more than three statements that will allow ONLY host C web access to the Finance Web Server. No other hosts will have web access to the Finance Web Server. All other traffic is permitted.
Access to the router CLI can be gained by clicking on the appropriate host. All passwords have been temporarily set to “cisco”.
The Core connection uses an IP address of
The computers in the Hosts LAN have been assigned addresses of –
Host A
Host B
Host C
Host D
The servers in the Server LAN have been assigned addresses of –
The Finance Web Server is assigned an IP address of The Public Web Server is assigned an IP address of
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  • A.

Answer: Corp1#configureterminal

Our access-list needs to allow host C – to the Finance Web Server via web (port80)
Corp1(config)#access-list 100 permit tcp host host eq 80
Deny other hosts access to the Finance Web Server via web
Corp1(config)#access-list 100 deny tcp any host eq 80
All other traffic is permitted
Corp1(config)#access-list 100 permit ip any any
Apply this access-list to Fa0/1 interface (outbound direction)
Corp1(config)#interface fa0/1
Corp1(config-if)#ip access-group 100 out Explanation :
Select the console on Corp1 router Configuring ACL
Corp1>enable Corp1#configure terminal
Comment: To permit only Host C (192. 168. 33. 3){source addr} to access finance server address (172.
22.242. 23){destination addr} on port number 80 (web) Corp1(config)# access-list 100 permit tcp host host eq 80
Comment: To deny any source to access finance server address (172. 22. 242. 23)
{destination addr} on port number 80 (web)
Corp1(config)# access-list 100 deny tcp any host eq 80
Comment: To permit ip protocol from any source to access any destination because of the implicit deny any any statement at the end of ACL.
Corp1(config)# access-list 100 permit ip any any Applying the ACL on the Interface
Comment: Check show ip interface brief command to identify the interface type and number by checking the IP address configured.
Corp1(config)#interface fa 0/1
If the ip address configured already is incorrect as well as the subnet mask. this should be corrected in order ACL to work type this commands at interface mode :
no ip address 192. x. x. x 255. x. x. x (removes incorrect configured ip address and subnet mask) Configure
Correct IP Address and subnet mask :
ip address 172. 22. 242. 30 255. 255. 255. 240 ( range of address specified going to server is given as 172.
22. 242. 17 172. 22. 242. 30 )
Comment: Place the ACL to check for packets going outside the interface towards the finance web server.
Corp1(config-if)#ip access-group 100 out Corp1(config-if)#end
Important: To save your running config to startup before exit. Corp1#copy running-config startup-config
Verifying the Configuration :
Step1: Show ip interface brief command identifies the interface on which to apply access list . Step2: Click on each host A, B, C & D . Host opens a web browser page , Select address box of the web browser and type the ip address of finance web server(172. 22. 242. 23) to test whether it permits /deny access to the finance web Server.


Which three statements about RSTP are true? (Choose three.)

  • A. RSTP significantly reduces topology reconverging time after a link failure.
  • B. RSTP expands the STP port roles by adding the alternate and backup roles.
  • C. RSTP port states are blocking, discarding, learning, or forwarding.
  • D. RSTP provides a faster transition to the forwarding state on point-to-point links than STP does.
  • E. RSTP also uses the STP proposal-agreement sequence.
  • F. RSTP uses the same timer-based process as STP on point-to-point links.

Answer: ABD

Explanation: a.shtml
Cisco enhanced the original 802.1D specification with features such as Uplink Fast, Backbone Fast, and Port Fast to speed up the convergence time of a bridged network. The drawback is that these mechanisms are proprietary and need additional configuration.
Alternate and Backup Port Roles
These two port roles correspond to the blocking state of 802.1D. A blocked port is defined as not being the designated or root port. A blocked port receives a more useful BPDU than the one it sends out on its segment.
Remember that a port absolutely needs to receive BPDUs in order to stay blocked. RSTP introduces these two roles for this purpose.
Rapid Transition to Forwarding State
Rapid transition is the most important feature introduced by 802.1w. The legacy STA passively waited for the network to converge before it turned a port into the forwarding state. The achievement of faster convergence was a matter of tuning the conservative default parameters (forward delay and max_age timers) and often put the stability of the network at stake. The new rapid STP is able to actively confirm that a port can safely
transition to the forwarding state without having to rely on any timer configuration. There is now a real feedback mechanism that takes place between RSTP-compliant bridges. In order to achieve fast convergence on a port, the protocol relies upon two new variables: edge ports and link type.


Which command is used to display the collection of OSPF link states?

  • A. show ip ospf link-state
  • B. show ip ospf lsa database
  • C. show ip ospf neighbors
  • D. show ip ospf database

Answer: D

Explanation: 01217
The following is sample output from the show ip ospf database command when no arguments or keywords are used:
Router# show ip ospf database
OSPF Router with id( (Process ID 300)
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To allow or prevent load balancing to network, which of the following commands could be used in R2? (Choose two.)

  • A. R2(config-if)#clock rate
  • B. R2(config-if)#bandwidth
  • C. R2(config-if)#ip ospf cost
  • D. R2(config-if)#ip ospf priority
  • E. R2(config-router)#distance ospf

Answer: BC

OSPF Cost ml#t6
The cost (also called metric) of an interface in OSPF is an indication of the overhead required to send packets across a certain interface. The cost of an interface is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of that interface. A higher bandwidth indicates a lower cost. There is more overhead (higher cost) and time delays involved in crossing a 56k serial line than crossing a 10M ethernet line. The formula used to calculate the cost is:
cost= 10000 0000/bandwith in bps
For example, it will cost 10 EXP8/10 EXP7 = 10 to cross a 10M Ethernet line and will cost 10 EXP8/1544000 =64 to cross a T1 line.
By default, the cost of an interface is calculated based on the bandwidth; you can force the cost of an interface with the ip ospf cost <value> interface subconfiguration mode command.

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poison reverse: A router learns from its neighbor that a route is down and the router sends an update back to the neighbor with an infinite metric to that route
LSA: The packets flooded when a topology change occurs, causing network routers to update their topological databases and recalculate routes
split horizon: This prevents sending information about a routeback out the same interface that originally learned about the route
holddown timer: For a given period, this causes the router to ignore any updates with poorer metrics to a lost network

Does this meet the goal?
  • A. Yes
  • B. Not Mastered

Answer: A


Refer to the exhibit.
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C-router is to be used as a "router-on-a-stick" to route between the VLANs. All the interfaces have been properly configured and IP routing is operational. The hosts in the VLANs have been configured with the appropriate default gateway. What is true about this configuration?

  • A. These commands need to be added to the configuration: C-router(config)# router eigrp 123C-router(config-router)# network
  • B. These commands need to be added to the configuration: C-router(config)# router ospf 1C-router(config-router)# network area 0
  • C. These commands need to be added to the configuration: C-router(config)# router ripC-router(config-router)# network
  • D. No further routing configuration is required.

Answer: D

Explanation: 00800949fd.shtml


What command is used to verify the DLCI destination address in a Frame Relay static configuration?

  • A. show frame-relay pvc
  • B. show frame-relay lmi
  • C. show frame-relay map
  • D. show frame relay end-to-end

Answer: C

Cisco Frame Relay Configurations show frame-relay map
The show frame-relay map privileged EXEC mode command shows the contents of the next hop protocol address to DLCI mapping table on the router. The table contains both dynamic mapped and static mapped entries. The below example shows a sample output of the show frame-relay map command.
Router#show frame-relay map
Serial1/2 (up): ip dlci 401(0x191,0x6410), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active
Serial1/2 (up): ip dlci 501(0x1F5,0x7C50), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active
Serial1/2 (up): ip dlci 301(0x12D,0x48D0), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active


Which protocol is an open standard protocol framework that is commonly used in VPNs, to provide secure end-to-end communications?

  • A. RSA
  • B. L2TP
  • C. IPsec
  • D. PPTP

Answer: C

Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a technology protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to be used during the session.


A router receives information about network from multiple sources. What will the router consider the most reliable information about the path to that network?

  • A. an OSPF update for network
  • B. a static route to network
  • C. a static route to network with a local serial interface configured as the next hop
  • D. a RIP update for network
  • E. a directly connected interface with an address of
  • F. a default route with a next hop address of

Answer: E

What Is Administrative Distance?
Select the Best Path
Administrative distance is the first criterion that a router uses to determine which routing protocol to use if two protocols provide route information for the same destination. Administrative distance is a measure of the trustworthiness of the source of the routing information. Administrative distance has only local significance, and is not advertised in
routing updates.
Note: The smaller the administrative distance value, the more reliable the protocol. For example, if a router receives a route to a certain network from both Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) (default administrative distance - 110) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) (defaultadministrative distance - 100), the router chooses IGRP because IGRP is more reliable. This means the router adds the IGRP version of the route to the routing table.
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Which port state is introduced by Rapid-PVST?

  • A. learning
  • B. listening
  • C. discarding
  • D. forwarding

Answer: C

Spanning Tree from PVST+ to Rapid-PVST Migration Configuration Example
Reference 1: 09186a00807b0670.shtml
Reference 2: a.shtml
PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). But PVST+ has only 3 port states (discarding, learning and forwarding) while STP has 5 port states (blocking, listening, learning, forwarding and disabled). So discarding is a new port state in PVST+.
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Background Information
802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) has a drawback of slow convergence. Cisco Catalyst switches support three types of STPs, which are PVST+, rapid-PVST+ and MST. PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D standard and includes Cisco proprietary extensions such as BackboneFast, UplinkFast, and PortFast. Rapid-PVST+ is based on IEEE 802.1w standard and has a faster convergence than 802.1D. RSTP (IEEE 802.1w) natively includes most of the Cisco proprietary enhancements to the 802.1D Spanning Tree, such as BackboneFast and UplinkFast. Rapid-PVST+ has these unique features:
Uses Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) version 2 which is backward compatible with the 802.1D STP, which uses BPDU version 0.
All the switches generate BPDUs and send out on all the ports every 2 seconds, whereas in 802.1D STP only the root bridge sends the configuration BPDUs.
Port Roles—Root port, designated port, alternate port and backup port. Port States—Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding.
Port Types—Edge Port (PortFast), Point-to-Point and Shared port.
Rapid-PVST uses RSTP to provide faster convergence. When any RSTP port receives legacy 802.1D BPDU, it falls back to legacy STP and the inherent fast convergence benefits of 802.1w are lost when it interacts with legacy bridges.


Refer to the exhibit.
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Assume that all router interfaces are operational and correctly configured. In addition, assume that OSPF has been correctly configured on router R2. How will the default route configured on R1 affect the operation of R2?

  • A. Any packet destined for a network that is not directly connected to router R1 will be dropped.
  • B. Any packet destined for a network that is not directly connected to router R2 will be dropped immediately.
  • C. Any packet destined for a network that is not directly connected to router R2 will be dropped immediately because of the lack of a gateway on R1.
  • D. The networks directly connected to router R2 will not be able to communicate with the,, and subnetworks.
  • E. Any packet destined for a network that is not referenced in the routing table of router R2 will be directed to R1. R1 will then send that packet back to R2 and a routing loop will occur.

Answer: E

First, notice that the more-specific routes will always be favored over less-specific routes regardless of the administrative distance set for a protocol. In this case, because we use OSPF for three networks (,, so the packets destined for these networks will not be affected by the default route. The default route configured on R1 "ip route serial0/0 will send any packet whose destination network is not referenced in the routing table of router R1 to R2, it doesn't drop anything so answers A, B and C are not correct. D is not correct too because these routes are declared in R1and the question says that "OSPF has been correctly configured on router R2, so network directly connected to router R2 can communicate with those three subnetworks. As said above, the default route configured on R1 will send any packet destined for a network that is not referenced in its routing table to R2; R2 in turn sends it to R1 because it is the only way and a routing loop will occur.


The command show frame-relay map gives the following output:
Serial 0 (up): ip dlci 122, dynamic, broadcast, status defined, active Which statements represent what is shown?(Choose three.)

  • A. represents the IP address of the remote router
  • B. represents the IP address of the local serial interface
  • C. DLCI 122 represents the interface of the remote serial interface
  • D. DLCI 122 represents the local number used to connect to the remote address
  • E. broadcast indicates that a dynamic routing protocol such as RIP v1 can send packets across this PVC
  • F. active indicates that the ARP process is working

Answer: ADE

Explanation: 3
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Which connection uses the default encapsulation for serial interfaces on Cisco routers?

  • A. The serial connection to the NorthCoast branch office.
  • B. The serial connection to the North branch office.
  • C. The serial connection to the Southlands branch office.
  • D. The serial connection to the Multinational Core.

Answer: :B

Cisco default encapsulation is HDLC which is by default enabled on all cisco router. If we want to enable other encapsulation protocol(PPP,X.25 etc) we need to define in interface setting. But here except s1/1 all interface defined by other encapsulation protocol so we will assume default encapsulation running on s1/1 interface and s1/1 interface connected with North


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